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Ancient Vimanas(Flying Machine) : Anekal(Bangalore; India) :: Leonardo da Vinci’s Flying machine, the precursor to the airplane - Click Here To Read Article
This is one of the fine article, worth having a quick peek inside our Indic Savants In The World Of Computational Science - Ancient India and most of you will be surprised in noticing the mathematical power Indians Brought to this Planet.

Seeing At These, hope most of them would be convinced or satisfied with what Indians are capable off. Also there arises questions on how many of these got converted into different religions and made a mark on their period? Also, how many did travel to different countries and also how many did had an inter-cast marriage and how many got teachings from them and how many stole ideas from them? Lets have an open minded broad questions and answers on it.
Continuing our discussion on "Indian Cosmology - Advanced Time Lines Of History, will be further moving on few other important topics;


The basis of the Hindu calendar calculation is Vedic. This calendar has been modified and elaborated, but because it is based on the stars (Nakshatras) visible to the naked eye, and on the visible Lunar phases, it is more accurate than any others of the past. The actual moments when Lunar months begin, can easily be checked by the regular appearances of Solar eclipses, and the middle moment of a Lunar month -- Poornima or full moon -- can similarly be verified by the more Praj¯apati,Aryaman, Vis.u, Yama, Indra) complete the list. There is no doubt that the ecliptic is meant because the last
verse of the hymn refers explicitly to the fidelity with which the sun and the moon move on their path, the ecliptic. 

The division of the circle into 360 parts or 720 parts was also viewed from the point of view the nakshatras by assigning 27 upanakshatras to each nakshatra (´ Satapatha Br. This constituted an excellent approximation because 27 × 27 = 729. In other words, imagining each nakshatra to be further divided into 27 equal parts made it possible to conceptualize half a degree when examining the sky. 

The Table Shown Below Gives A Description On Indian Nakshatra:

Table Shown Below; "Give a description on :: Values for Lunar Sidereal Orbit And The Lunar Synodic Orbit"

The remaining 2 items in the Panchaga, the Karana and the Yoga are not as conceptual and are more derivative in nature.

Also table shown below gives some comparison of "Astronomical Constants"

In the following few articles, Mathomathis would reveal some of the truth and extensive mathematical calculations on Indian Cosmology and some of it's Timelines of history. Readers are advised to have an open thought and have a basic knowledge on high school mathematics.

From past couple of articles on Indian cosmology, Time and Space of Brahma, Organization of Brahma and Vishnu Loka, Time and Space of Vishnu Loka, team mathomathis had dealt with lot of time calculations keeping lord Brahma as the base, i.e. the power of Zero, where we start from nothing and try to exists on this nothing. Further moving on, the table below describes some of the time cycle so that readers can get a glimpse of the discussion.

There are some who feel that the reference to a Mahayuga going back to 4,320,000 years, is without foundation, since we do not have recorded history going back that far and the more appropriate measure to us is the divine year. There is a suspicion that somewhere along the historical past, there was confusion in the interpretation of the various definitions of the year, which has resulted in such long periods being assigned to the Yugas such as Kaliyuga. We will discuss later the relevance of the divine year which is mentioned as being comprised of 360 tropical years. For example the duration of a Kaliyuga in Divine years is a more manageable 1200 years and the entire Mahayuga is 12000 years which is of the same time scale as the beginning of river valley civilizations, if we assume that there was a confusion regarding the interpretation of the year. We will discuss this later. It is the attempt of the ancient Indic to describe geologic time scales associated with the beginning of recorded hstory that causes confusion and has invited the ridicule of some in the Occident such as Thomas Babingtin Macaulay and has prompted him to characterize the entire literature of India as being worthless.

The Celestial Sphere

It is conceptually useful to visualize the sky as the interior of a vast celestial sphere;

The Month

Lunar or Synodic Month - The month is a unit of time, used with calendars, which is approximately as long as some natural period related to the motion of the Moon. The traditional concept arose with the cycle of moon phases; such Monday sunrise in New York city occurs 8:30 AM (EST). Further assume that at 9 AM (EST) on Monday the angular distance between the sun and moon is exactly
12 degrees just following the new moon of the Indian lunar month Kartik. Since the length of a tithi is 12 degrees, the tithi,

Kartik Shudha Dwitiya (second day) begins exactly at 9 AM on Monday of that November in New York. However, at the time of sunrise on that Monday the tithi Dwitiya has not begun. Therefore, the tithi for that Monday for city of New York is Kartik Shudha Prathama (first day).

On the same Monday morning the sunrise in Los Angeles occurs well past 9 AM (EST). Since the Tithi Dwitiya occurs everywhere in the world at the same instant, therefore, for Los Angeles, the Tithi for that Monday would be Karthik Shudha Dwitiya. For the same Monday at 9 AM (EST), it would be 7:30 PM in Mumbai or New Delhi. Thus, Tithi for that Monday for city of New York, Mumbai, and New Delhi is Karthik Shudha Prathama (the first day of Indian lunar month Karthik) while for most of the regions west of Chicago or St. Louis the Tithi for that Monday is Dwitiya. In other words, the Tithi Karthik Shudha Prathama for regions west of Chicago or St. Louis should occur on the preceding day, the Sunday.

Karthik Shudha Prathama (the first day of Indian lunar month Karthik) also happens to be the first day after Diwali. Most of the Indians celebrate this as their New Year ’s Day. Indians living in India, Europe, and eastern part of the United States thus should celebrate their New Year on that Monday while regions west of Chicago should celebrate on the preceding day, the Sunday. (Based on description by Jagdish C. Maheshri) October 12, 2000

Read :: "Indian Cosmology - Advanced TimeLines Of History - Part II

As continuing from the previous article on Particles In Vedas - Einstein Law of energy - Part II, mathomathis will be proceeding further on the final article on particles in vedas, users are allowed to have an open discussion on the same and they are also asked to share their view points on it.

Satapatha Brahmana 6.5.14 syas that ‘‘Aja is the form of all animals’’. In yajurveda 23.11 the following question is raised. ‘‘What object is Pis’angila’’? 

The answer is given in 23.12

‘‘Night is Pis’ angila’’. In 23.56 it is said that ‘‘Aja is pis’angila who like a dog gets things out and devours it again’’. So it is evident that Aja and Pas’us convert into each other.

Thus the Gramya particles As’va, Gau, Avi are born from Aja which is born from Agni and vice versa.

Aja has been described as having only one foot is Rigveda 7.35.13. There is no goat having only one foot. This is again further proof of Aj a being an intermediate step between energy and matter particles. Once the particle is formed completely, it is referred to as an animal having four feet.
Agni is described as having no foot in Rigveda 1.2.7. Thus unmanifested energy is described as having no foot, Partially manifested localized energy (intermediate stage) is described as having one foot and completely manifested energy is described as animal having four feet (particle).

Once-born : (Ekaja)

Aja means not born. Sometimes Aja is referred as Ekaja which means once born. As Aja is the intermediate step between the transformation of energy into particles, Aja can be considered as localised energy. Aja is almost like energy. That is why it was given the name not-born. Ekaja means once-born. It is the first manifested energy as particle. Thus,

So, According to Vedic Science,

From the above table clearly we notice the major difference, that is quarks are considered as point particles where as Gramya particles are said to be derived from Aja particle. This means that further simplification in the quark model will give rise to the real picture of creation and annihilation.

Trilokas :

If we accept the modern view, the universe is divided into two, that is Energy and Matter, without any interphase. The most important concept of the Vedas is the triparticle division of the Universe into Prthivi (earth), Antariks’a (inter phase) and Dyau (heaven). Each of them is called a ‘Loka’. Thus the Universe is ‘Triloka’. Prthivi means broad and extended, Antariks’a means existing between, Dyau means bright.

Tittiriya upanisad. 1.3.1. says :
‘‘Antariks’a is the junction of Prthivi and Dyau ’’.

The most sacred Gayatri mantra is : Om Bhur Bhuvah Swah

This clearly mentioned the three lokas. These lokas were formed not because the universe was divided into three, but because it was divided into two with an interphase. Scientists are divided on this. Gibbs considers the interphase as an imaginary plane dividing the two phases. Guggenheim considers the interphase to be a separate phase and assigns all the properties to an interphase that a phase can have. This is in agreement with the Vedic concept. 

Tris’ira Vis’varupa :
Tris’ira Vis’varupa, a seal from Indusvally is shown below.

Tris’ira means three headed and Vis’varupa means shape of the Universe. The three heads of the Universe represents three lokas prthivi, Antariks’a and Dyau. The above figure shows Tris’ira Vis’varupa as found on a seal of the Indus Valley Civilization. Some scholars tried to explain the three heads as one head in three different positions. This explanation is the result of their considering Indus Valley people different from the Vedic people. One can easily observe that the three heads are different representing three different lokas.

S’iva Tandavam :
Creation and annihilation is a continuous process. Every where in the universe this process is going on. The vedic sages envisaged this process as a cosmic dance of creation. Us a is represented as dancer. Later it is represented as the Cosmic dance of Lord S’iva who is also called Nataraja. This dance is the creation and annihilation of matter and anti matter. It is wonder that modern scientists described the movements of flying quark particles is like an amazing dance.
Thus Vedic Science and modern Science both tell us that there is a continuous dance of creation and annihilation of particles every where in the universe. In Hindu mythology it is described as S’iva Tandavam. 

The philosophy behind this is the  transformation of matter particles into energy and energy into matter particles. This creation - annihilation of energy has a very special place in the Cosmology of Rigveda.
In case if the readers have missed the Particles In Vedas - Einstein Law of energy - Part I of the article, do read @here.

Verse Eleven :

‘‘O horse, your body is made for flying, your mind is rapid as wind. Your beautiful horns are placed in various ways and travel in forests.’’

In verse eleven, the horns of horse are referred. Horses don’t have horns. This description was deliberate to distinguish As’va as a particle but not simply the animal horse.

 Verse Twelve :
‘‘Strong horse goes for slaughtering meditating upon the gods. His navel, goat is led ahead, praisers and poets follow him.’’

Verse Twelve clearly describes horse sacrifice. In Vedas sacrifice means transformation. So it is the transformation of As’va particle into energy. That is why As’va is supposed to go to gods. In Vedas gods are various forms of energy.  In this verse it is also mentioned that ‘‘Aja’’ is the centre of
As’va. This clearly indicates that As’va particle is formed from ‘Aja’. Scientifically this signifies that before transformation into energy ‘Asva’ particle becomes ‘Aja’.

Gau : Gau means cow.
According to Yaska’s Nirukta : ‘‘So Api Gauruchyate"

This means the name Gau is given because it represents the ray of moonlight. In Brahmapurana there is an interesting story regarding the origin of Gau. This story tells that ‘adi Sakti’ (Primary energy) takes the form of Gau. From this, it is clear that energy is converted into Gau particle. This becomes clear by examining the hymn dedicated to Gau from

Rgveda 10.169. Verse Two: 

‘‘Some cows are of the same color. Some cows have different colours while some are of identical colour. Yajna Agni knows the cows. They are on Prdvi as a result of the
Tapas of Angirasa.’’
In the second verse of the hymn different colors of the Gaus are described.
Modern scientists gave the name color to describe the variations of quark particles. It is amazing to notice that Vedic sages also came up with the same idea of colour to distinguish quark particles. ‘‘Indra creates white milk in black and red cows’’ : Rigveda 1.62.9. 

So, the colors describe different variations of the Gau particles.
Verse Three :
‘‘Cows sacrifice themselves in the Yajna of Gods. Soma gets strengthened by this. Indra filled the cows with milk and send them to our sheds (gostha).’’

In verse three sacrifice of Gau in Yajna is described. As we know already in Vedas the sacrifice refers to transformation and gods refer to different forms of energy, here the transformation of Gau particle into energy is described. It also reveals the association of Gau with Soma and Indra. In post-vedic period the real meaning of Gau is forgotten.

In Rgveda 7.36.1 Gau is interpreted as sun’s rays. In 9.10.3. Gau is said to be mixed with Soma. In 1.164.41 Gaus having one, two, four, eight or nine legs are mentioned.

In 10.62.7 Gau is called as astakarni that is having eight ears. These verses are not describing an ordinary animal but they are describing Gau particle. In vedic cosmology Gau particle has a very special place. Rigveda 10.46.3 says that Trita found Agni on the head of cow. This means that Gau particle possesses 1/3 charge and can be transformed into energy.

Avi : Avi means Sheep.
In yajurveda 23.11 the following question is raised. ‘‘what object is Pilipila?’’
The answer is given in 23.12 - ‘‘Avi is Pilipila’’.
Pilipila is a thing which is very soft and can be pressed very easily. Avi particle is a soft particle and dense field - lines are coming out of it. Hence describing Avi particle as sheep is appropriate. According to Maitrayani samhita 4.57.7. Avi is described in three colors red, white and black. Thus vedic sages not only observed the Gramya pas’us which are nothing but quark particles but also measured their properties as well.

Aja : Aja means goat.
In S’vetas’ vatara Upanishad 4.5 Aja is said to be of three colors red, white and black creating various objects of its own form.

Adharva Veda 9.5.7. savs that ‘‘Aja is Agni’’ 9.5.13 Verse says that ‘‘Aja was born from s’oka of Agni and he saw Agni first.  Gods became gods due to Aja’’. From these mantras it is clear that Agni and Aja converts into each other. Agni means one that leads. Related word is ‘Agra’. In scientific terminology Agni is energy.

Do read The Final Article on : Particles In Vedas - Einstein Law of energy :: Grand Finale
In this article, mathomathis will present some of the research oriented done by Dr. S. Sivaram Babu, M.Sc., Ph.D and Arjuna Devi, M.A on Law of energy. Frankly speaking when team mathomathis was investigation on particles and vedas, we did find a lot of materials and good set of information at a very low level and decoding was and still is a hectic process. But after reading the following reasarch done by Dr. S. Sivaram Babu and Arjuna Devi, we felt very much closer on the further investigation on the theory of vedas and particles.
People, like minded of mathomathis and researchers and scholars across the globe are welcome to have an open discussion on it. [Happy Reading on Part I - Vedas and Laws of energy]

An according to modern Physics matter and energy can be converted into each other. It was given by Einstein Law of Mass - Energy Equivalence as E=mc2. Modern Physics tells us that there is continuous creation and annihilation of particles every where in the universe. Matter Particles transform into energy and energy transforms into matter particles.

But it does not tell us much about the stages in between the transformation of matter particles and energy into each other, so far quark model telling about the point particles also not established well because modern science reached the limits due to singularities. Singularity represents infinity which is conceptually meaningless.

The Rigveda is the celebration and manifestation of Universe. It describes the evolution of the  cosmos. Vedic Science accepted the continuous conversion of matter and energy into each other. It tells us clearly about the point particles (Bindu Kanas) and about the different stages in the transformation of point particles into energy and Vice Versa. According to Vedic Science. 

Actually Vedic sages have seen what ever can be seen in the universe. Vedic scientists gave the name pas’u to whatever could be seen.

Particles : (Pasu)

In Vedas the word used for particle is Pas’u. Pas’u is derived from the root word, ‘Pas’ which means ‘to see’. The common meaning of Pas’u is animal. But Vedic meaning for Pas’u is visible or observable. That’s why the particle that can be seen is named as Pas’u in Vedas. It is clearly mentioned in Satapatha Brahmana

‘‘Praja Pati saw Agni in those Pas’us, therefore they are called Pas’us’’.

Angi is energy. This mantra clearly shows the Equivalence of Pas’u (Particle) and Agni (energy). There are several mantras in vedic scriptures to this effect. Yajurveda 23.17 ‘‘Agni was Pasu’’. Taittiriya Brahmana ‘‘Pas’us are Agneya.’’ The transformation of matter particles into energy and energy into particles is well established by these mantras.

‘‘From that Yajna curd, butter was obtained. From that, Vayavya, Aranya and Gramya Pas’us were born’’. Milk is homogeneous. Curd and butter are heterogeneous. From milk the formation of curd, butter means the conversion of homogeneous energy into heterogeneous. From that, pas’us were born means particles are produced by the condensation of energy. Particles are given the name pas’u because they could be seen.

Animals have been classified as Gramya, Aranya and Vayavya. Gramya animals are those animals which stay together. Grama means a place where people live together. So, we can come to the conclusion that Gramya Pas’us are particles which prefer to stay together. Scientists call them as Bosons.

Aranya animals are those wild animals which prefer to stay alone. So, Aranya pas’us are particles which prefer to stay alone. Scientists call them as Fermions. Similarly Vayavya particles are field particles.

Scientists are under the concept that particles interact via the exchange of field particles. For example Electromagnetic interaction takes place by the exchange of photons. Vedic scientists realized this thousands of years ago what scientists are beginning to realize only now.

Gramya Pas’us :  Gramya Pas’us are further divided into four types as mentioned in Rgveda 10.90.10 hymn.
‘‘From that As’va (horses) were born, who have teeth on bothsides. Gau (cows), Avi (Sheep) and Aja (goats) were born’’.

As’va : As’va means horse. According to Yaska’s Nirukta 

‘‘A’snute Adhvanam’’. : This means the name As’Va is given because of its propagation and fast speed. As’va doesnot mean horse in Vedas. It becomes clear by examining the following hymn dedicated to As’va in Rgveda 1.163.

Sage : Dirghatama Augasthya
Deity : As’va
Metre : Tristupa

From the hymn it is clear that it is certainly no ordinary horse. It is the description of As’va particle precisely. Our Sages described it as a flying horse. In verse one the wings are mentioned.

Verse One : ‘‘When you roared springing from sea or land after birth, your great birth is worthy of praise you have wings of eagle and arms of deer.’’

There is no flying horse having wings in reality. Flying is the character of quark particles in modern science. So As’va can be considered as one of the quark particles.

Verse Two : ‘‘This horse was given by Yama. Trita harnessed it, Indra captured him first and Gandharva held its reins. Vasus made this horse from sun.’’

In verse two As’va is associated with Trita. Trita means 1/3, Modern scientists recently found that quarks carry 1/3 charge. So calling As’va by the name Trita means As’va particle carries one third charge.

Verse Three : ‘‘You are Yama, you are Aditya, you are Trita by a hidden act, you are well associated with Soma. You have three bindings in heaven it is said.’’ Verse three tells that As’va is hidden. In modern science it was found that quark particles cannot be observed inisolation. Vedic sages clearly know this. So they mentioned that As’va is hidden.

Reader can view the corresponding Part II of this article.

    Did You Know

    ***Maharishi considers the 192nd Sukta to be "... the "Avyukta Sukta", it means the "empty sukta" and it's just a complete absence of any sound at all***

    ***If one assigns the value of one to the distance between the chin and the crown of the human head, then 0.618 of this distance will be found to correspond exactly to the various locations of the head chakras***

    ***The natural scale is the scale used by the author for the chakras, and not the Western diatonic scale per se. A long time ago the Highland bagpipe and other traditional instruments had a fundamental "A" of 432Hz***

    ***The ancient ritual procedures of marking the cardinal and ordinal directions are detailed in the traditional architecture manual, known as the Silpasaastra. This is used to orient and define the land marks of architectural projects such as, town, village, temples and residential places like palaces and houses.***

    ***The Vedic Samhitas are followed by Brahmanas and the Aranyakas. As we have said elsewhere that if we accept 3000 B.C. as a convenient date for the Rig Vedic culture, the Aitareya Brahmana will have to be assigned a date 2500-2000 B.C.***

    ***Kanada is associated with the atomic theory. The smallest state of matter is paramanu (atom) and the largest state is called 'mahat' (self sense). So he considered atom to be indivisible, a point source, without magnitude, a concept nearer the Boyles' concept.***

    ***It is necessary to consider some basic aspects of the Hindu worldview, overarching and under girding worldview concepts, to see how they form the background of specific sacred buildings in India. Those who are unfamiliar with Hinduism may not expect a simultaneous complex of ideas expressed in a massive structure.***

    ***Maharishi considers the 192nd Sukta to be "... the "Avyukta Sukta", it means the "empty sukta" and it's just a complete absence of any sound at all. It complements the first sukta, and with it in place you can line up the first mandala in a circle with each sukta matching up to another diametrically opposite in the circle.***

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